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HSC Chemistry


HSC Chemistry is one of the most rewarding HSC subjects you can choose. In terms of scaling, Chemistry has consistently been the highest scaled HSC science course, compared to Physics and Biology. Chemistry also provides a very useful foundation for university courses in the health sciences fields (Medicine, Pharmacy and Medical science in particular). With typically around 10,000 students doing Chemistry for their HSC each year, it is also one of the most popular HSC subjects chosen. If you can do well in Chemistry, it will greatly help your UAI and your chances of getting into the university course you desire.Why choose HSC ChemistryAs mentioned, HSC Chemistry is the highest scaled science course commonly available across practically all schools in NSW. The first reason is that because sciences (HSC Physics in particular) generally scale well, there is an economy of scale in choosing and doing both subjects.

For example, if you are a logically oriented student who tends to do well at quantitative / conceptual-based subjects like mathematics, there is a good chance you will enjoy science subjects. The sad thing about the HSC and the way schools structure their subject offerings (for most schools anyway) is that students often do not have much subjects to choose from. Therefore they are left with little choice from which they can select, and most often always end up doing the same subjects (Mathematics + science combination). While this is not a bad thing, this means that if you are a student who is intent on choosing quantitative subjects, you will most likely doing at least 2 out of the 3 subjects. Based on scaling statistics of past years, Chemistry and Physics scale the highest out of the sciences.Students should also note that Chemistry has traditionally scaled as well as English Advanced. In the past few years, HSC Chemistry had a scaled mean (published by UAC's yearly scaling report, in their Table A3) of around 30/50.

This places HSC Chemistry at around the same scaled mean as Economics, English Advanced, and slightly higher than Physics (28-29 out of 50 in recent years). While it is recommended that you choose subjects based on your talents and interests, if you are going to do at least 1 or 2 HSC science subjects, you may as well choose Chemistry as one of your science subjects in order to benefit from the good scaling.Doing well in HSC ChemistryHSC Chemistry is a very experience-based course. There are many things which a student will realise at the end of their Preliminary Chemistry course, or even halfway through their HSC year. For example, students find it hard to accept that there is no clearly defined pattern when trying to determine the valency of transition metals. Valencies of common anions and cations need to be rote-memorised, as there is no common thread of logic which can be used to derive them (not within the scope of the HSC subject, that is). Therefore many things come with experience, as time goes on and students slowly familiarise with the piecemeal bits of facts that they need to remember and use throughout HSC Chemistry. We will look at a few key examples of what we mean which makes this course experience-based.Common valenciesThe common valencies of anions and cations need to be remembered quite well.

For example, there is no 'reason' that will be given to you throughout your HSC why carbonate ions have a charge of -2. Similarly there is no 'reason' that will be given to you to explain why silver ions have a charge of +1, whereas most other transition metals have an oxidation state of +2. These odd exceptions and facts will come with experience.Some common valencies you should remember are:- How to calculate the charge on monatomic ions using the periodic table. For example, Groups I, II and III would have a charge of +1, +2 and +3 respectively, whereas Groups V, VI and VII would have a charge of -3, -2 and -1 respectively. - Transition metals have an oxidation state of +2 most of the time. Know the exceptions (discussed in next point)- Common exceptions to transition metals having a +2 oxidatoin state are: Iron (can be iron(II) or iron(III)), copper (can be copper(I) or copper(II)) and silver (almost always +1 only, as silver(I)).- All the common polyatomic anions (carbonate, sulfate, nitrate are the three that are most commonly referred to throughout the course)Solubility rulesSolubility rules for HSC Chemistry are important to remember, as most of the time they help you get the state of various salts correct when writing your balanced formulae.

For example, in the reaction between magnesium metal and dilute sulfuric acid, how would you know whether the resultant salt, magnesium sulfate, is in aqueous or solid state? You would know this only from remembering some general rules of solubility, that magnesium sulfate would be soluble in water.Some commonly applicable solubility rules you will need for HSC Chemistry:- All alkali metals (Group I metals) like sodium, potassium, lithium etc are soluble as an ion- All nitrate salts are soluble- All chloride salts are soluble- Most alkali earth metals (Group II) like magnesium, calcium etc are soluble as an ion- All hydrogen compounds (i.e. common acids like sulfuric acids, nitric acid, hydrochloric acid) are soluble.- Only some hydroxides are soluble (be careful here)- Only some sulfides are soluble- Only some carbonates are soluble- Only some phosphates are solubleThe above is actually a very general and basic recall of the complete solubility rules that a good student should remember.

Actually this is just from the top of the author's memory from when he did his HSC many years ago, but it highlights the point that solubility rules ought to be remembered well. There will be many situations where you would like to know about the water-solubility of certain salts, in order to get the state correct. You can often find neat and useful summaries of solubility rules at various places online that are sufficient for HSC purposes.Module-specific experience HSC Chemistry modules are similar to HSC Physics in that they appear quite piecemeal and separated from each other. A student can have an excellent understanding in one module but have a poor understanding of the next.

Therefore it is important to keep a consistent regime of study throughout the HSC year, and gain a comprehensive understanding of each module.Within each module, a good Chemistry student would need to know about the subtle points in order to have a complete understanding. For example, in the 'Production of Materials' module, it is a good idea to read through a reputable textbook like Chemistry in Contexts or Conquering Chemistry and get a feel of all the various polymers (addition and condensation polymer types) that can be produced from various monomers. A good student would be able to identify the relationship between the monomer used and the polymer it results in, as well as some basic chemical and physical properties that can be predicted from looking at the polymer or even monomer structure.

For example, if we see large functional groups, we know there will be chain stiffening, causing hardness, rigidity and tensile strength of the resultant polymer. If we add plasticisers or vulcanise the polymer, we know this will give the polymer flexibility and elastic properties (e.g. garden hose made from PVC). All these little facts come from experience, from sitting down and reading into a textbook to get the necessary background information needed. Or you may have a great teacher at school or HSC tutoring which might supplant your knowledge with the necessary background information.Another example, in the next module, 'The Acidic Environment', the content deals almost exclusively with acids and bases, and the reactions that come from dealing with such chemicals. Through doing many questions and figuring why you went wrong each time you did, you should gain a mastery of predicting how buffers react to changes via Le Chatelier's principle. Nearing the final exams, a good student would be able to predict all reactions to changes at a glance.

For example, a common enclosed system is a fizzy softdrink. If you pressurise a softdrink can with more carbon dioxide, what happens? Increased gas pressure results in more dissolution of carbon dioxide in order to counteract the pressure change. What if you increase the temperature? Increasing temperature causes the system to react endothermically, which is the release of carbon dioxide gas. Also the specific solubility of carbon dioxide decreases as you increase temperature. Students should be able to identify and relate all these aspects of an enclosed system in order to achieve an excellent mark from HSC Chemistry.

Aviation Management Will Bring More Than You Desire


The aviation industry has got a high acceleration because flights have turned to be a viable option for people all over the world. There are a lot of airline companies that are reducing the prices of tickets and making them affordable for more travelers. The frequency of flights has been growing due to the liberalization of air policy. The industry is growing very fast and the requirement for qualified and skilled professionals is increasing rapidly. At present, pilot and air hostess jobs have turned to be the most attractive aviation jobs for the young aspirants who are interested in taking their career at very high altitude. The central figures and end operators in this entire operation are the pilots. They lead the team of truly trained aviation professionals. Nowadays the jobs of the pilots are highly demanding as they are the sole responsibility holder of a lot of people to bring them from one place to another safely.

The responsibility is very much respected and rewarding because they are distinctly visible of the crew members. The dazzling growth of the sector has given birth to many new posts of pilots and crew members. Another good option is air cargo service which may be considered as a good option for persons interested in adding additional feathers to their career. To become a pilot the basic need is to obtain a commercial pilot license and an experience of a minimum of 150 flying hours. The students having a science background can chase a course after their 10+2 offered by the government and other private bodies. Different aviation management courses are being offered at these institutes. A pilot always stays at the center of all the crew members. At the same time, flight attendants and air hostesses bear the true self of a particular airline. They are directly involved to take care of the complete hospitality and convenience of the passengers. This kind of job demands real competency to tackle various types of people from various regions of the world and to satisfy them by fulfilling their individual needs. If you are a graduate with degree or diploma in aviation management and have a strong interest in communication with various types of people besides being flexible at odd hours, then cabin crew job is an ideal one for you.

The career is lucrative for both its glamour and pay package. To accommodate extra pressure of traffic many airports in India are being modernized either in PPP model or by the government project. Some new airports are proposed to be set up. In west Bengal, the present Chief Minister has proposed to set up some new airports both in the north and south regions of the state. Due to these initiatives, a lot of job opportunities have been created for young aspirants for this industry. Some ancillary job opportunities like cargo handling, ticketing, custom clearance etc are also showing light to thousands of men and women. Very soon, professional aviation management will lead the economy of third world countries like India.

Things That Matter In GMAT Prep


GMAT is a global management tests that are conducted in most parts of the world, and every year, millions try their luck with the exam. What makes the competition worse is the fact that there are less than 2500 colleges with good rankings, and hence, it demands a student to be immensely focused on the exam. Take a glance on some GMAT prep tips given below to understand the kind of approach you need to succeed in GMAT.

1. What you need to do is to decide on coaching at the first place. Before you enroll in a coaching center, you must start with a sample test. Once you know the kind of marks that you have in each section, you can identify the kind of coaching you need. There are many kinds of coaching centers, where you can choose to comprehensive coaching or section wise coaching. If you think you need help on the verbal section, you can decide on the same. Coaching centers in Chennai and Delhi are quite famed for their approach and guidance.

2. The next step is to start studying at home. Self study is something that you just cannot compromise with. Successful students keep at least six hours of the day for self studies. You need to ensure that your divide your study time for different sections, with special attention to the weak sections.

3. You need to buy a few books consisting of GMAT sample papers and practice questions. If you have taken coaching, it is likely that the center will offer the basic materials to start your studies. Once you have the books, you need to find the additional books that you need. In the past few years, the internet has served as a great platform to study for GMAT. There are blogs, forums and websites where you can find books and materials for free or paid use. Instead of buying numerous books, try to make use of the materials that are available at hand.

4. It is equally important that you do some amount of group studies with your fellow friends. Studying with others can give you an idea about the way others are preparing. You can share and get tips and tricks to solve certain question patterns.

5. Identifying the question types and patterns is equally important for a student. Although, the questions are not repeated, you can have an idea about the question patterns.

This will help you in solving the questions in time. There are many students who are capable of solving questions, and yet, they miss to score because they don't know to manage all questions in time. You need to master the art of time management. Your aim should to be to attempt as many as you can without wasting time on one.GMAT Prep. is all about how finely you stay focused on your studies and how fairly you manage your time. Ensure that you clarify all doubts and thoughts with experts at the centre and be confident in your attitude.

Colour Perception And The Related Science


Colours dominate our lives. They have a huge bearing on the way we lead it. They are so closely related to us that everything we do from reading signs on the road to identifying a flower has a bit of colour involved in it. This association is such that they even have an effect on our mood as well for instance, gray is depressing - green is prosperous.Colour PerceptionWe recognize colours with the sensors in the retina of our eyes. These colour perception sensors are made of rods and cones.The rods are receptive to low intensity of light and, therefore, are not sensitive to colour. They perceive images as black and white. There are about 120 million rods in the human eye.The cones on the other hand require a greater intensity of light.

With about 7 million in number, each cone contains one of the three pigments sensitive to red, green or blue. These pigments have the capacity to absorb only a particular wavelength of colour. While short wavelength cones are able to absorb blue light, middle and long wavelength ones absorb green and red light.When a combination of cones gets pressed into action, we see a colour that has a wavelength between the primary colours.Visible light ranges between 380 to 780 nm on the electromagnetic spectrum. This is between the wavelength of the ultraviolet and the infrared light. A light comprising of equal proportions of all the visible wavelengths either gets absorbed or reflected. It is this reflected light that gives an object its perceived colour.The temperature of the light source also determines an object's perceived colour. Fluorescent lamp or a camera emits white light as it corresponds to a temperature of around 6000 Kelvin and does not distort colours.

Lights bulbs, on the other hand, correspond to a temperature of around 3000 Kelvin and cause objects to appear yellow.People who have less number of particular cones suffer from colour blindness. It is a state where people are unable to perceive differences between colours. If a person is suffering from this colour perception disease, it is most likely to be genetic, which means it is in the genes. This may, however, also occur because of eye, nerve or brain damage.Colour blindness application is designed to simulate various types of human partial colour vision. They can show the brightness information in normal colour vision and what each kind of cone sees. The applications have built-in algorithms to detect the severity of the blindness.The science or the study of colour is referred to as the Chromatics. It signifies the basic concepts of primary colours and hues, principles regarding their saturation and brightness, web-safe colours.

The study distinctively focuses upon the understanding of different colour concepts. In case of colour blindness, all these instincts and stimulations are highly affected; as a result the patient feels difficulty in recognizing them appropriately.It can be safely concluded from the above that colour perception is not in eye of the beholder, it's rather in the brain.

Overview Of Bachelor Of Fine Art


Bachelor of Fine Art A Bachelor of fine arts (BFA) is a starting points for your career since it the standard undergraduate degree and it is essential for those willing to pursue a career in visual or performing arts. It is also known commonly as Bachelor of creative arts (BCA). BFA is a four year degree course; it may take longer time to complete because of the requirement of amount of studio work. BFA helps a student to develop within itself an overview of the fine arts industry and will give credibility for your own business.

There are several options available for doing BFA degree such as: musical theater, acting, ceramics, computer animation, creative writing, dance, dramatic writing, cartooning, drawing, film production, fiber, visual effects, graphic design, animation, industrial design, visual arts, metal working, music, illustration, music, new media, painting, making prints, photography, sculpture and television production. The candidates after finishing their schooling in any stream are eligible to apply.

There is no entrance test conducted for doing this course. But one needs to take up the aptitude test and based on the test the final decision for providing admission is taken. The students who interested in creating and imaging then choosing BFA is the one of the best options. On should know how to develop the ideas and also should be practical enough to create an inspiring and innovative work. After successfully completing the BFA one can pursue a master degree in fine arts (MFA). MFA will allow you to teach up to a college level.

The scope of learning fine arts is more and the students get many options in front of them such as working in any art studios, can get work in any advertising companies, fashion houses, publishing houses, freelance work, teaching, direction, photography, television, clothing, software companies, manufactures, product design and director for any magazines, online services, and so on. A bachelor of fine arts degree can also be done through online. The online program helps the students to keep pace with the growing demands of the market concerned. They may also encourage the students to prepare any innovative designs that match with the demands of the industry.

Beauty Therapy in Sydney Comprises of Many Separate Areas


Beauty therapy is broken down into three separate areas which include facial therapy which is also known as aestheticians and the therapist is known as a beautician. Then there is body therapy also termed as body treatments and the therapist is known as a physiatrist and the third category is electrology, and is also termed as Epilation. Facial therapy treatments involve both electrical and manual treatments of the facial area but can also include waxing, and pedicures and manicures also fall in this category. Electrical and manual treatments on the body are applied for body therapy treatments.

Electrology treatments involve both the body and the face and involve the removal of hair using an electronic device such as electrolysis which has proved extremely effective for many decades.This is the standard definition of beauty therapy and has been for many decades; however one needs to heed caution with regards to some providers, as not all beauty therapists may have done their beauty course Sydney especially when it comes to electrology, as this type of training is vital for a aesthetician. Beauticians that do not have the right qualification and certification, especially with regards to electricals won't find jobs on cruise ships or spas or any other professional salon. Beauty therapists perform various different beauty therapy treatments once they have completed their training and obtained a recognized diploma or certificate.

A therapist should be able to perform manicures and pedicures, eyebrow shaping and eyebrow and eyelash tinting, electrical facial treatments that include galvanic iontophoresis, galvanic desincrustation, faradic, direct and indirect high frequency, infra red therapy, vacuum suction and microcurrent. A qualified therapist should be able to carry out leg, underarm, facial and bikini waxing, facial massage, toning, deep cleansing, moisturising and exfoliation. Body therapy includes full body massages, back, and neck and shoulder massage, figure analysis that includes cellulite treatments, exercise advice, advice on nutrition and diet, leg and foot massage as well as Swedish and other specialized massages.

Included is mechanical and vibratory massage therapy. Electrology therapy includes blend electrolysis, galvanic electrolysis as well as electrolysis treatments of the underarm, arms, face, chest and other body parts.Post graduate treatments include intense pulsed light treatments and red vein treatment and microdermabrasion that can only be carried out by therapist that have the necessary qualifications. In order to become a beauty therapist you need to attend an accredited beauty therapy college and obtain a diploma in beauty therapy. When signing up at a beauty college, make sure the college is registered and that your diploma is recognized internationally.

Assistance Consultancies to Get Admission in MBBS Russia


The Russian medical degree is well recognized throughout the world as it is certified by the various countries of the world. In fact a student will have more scope to get a placement in the top hospitals of the world if he has a medical degree from Russia. Some of the top international organizations like WHO, UNESCO are hiring the professionals who have pursued their medical education in Russia. You can also apply for the top medical firms in either USA or in any other country after completing your education. Besides, the students need not appear for the entrance exam too to get the admission in any of the Russian universities. You can apply for a Russian college directly via online. However there are some colleges for which you need to appear for the entrance exam to get an admission.

Education abroad is not impossible these days, and there are many consultancies which are offering the best guidance to the students about the education in Russia. Why consultancies? A consultancy will provide the answer for each of your questions. Moreover, they will guide you about the education in Russia. Here are few things which they guide you about:- Eligibility Criteria: In general, the eligibility depends on the universities/colleges which you opt for. You can visit the respective websites of the medical colleges in Russia to get an idea on the admission criteria. We provide all the necessary information regarding the admission criteria as we acquire the information directly from the colleges. Thus you can get the proper information from us unlike other sites.

Fee structure: The fee structure differs from one college to the other in general. Besides, it also depends on the branch you opt for in your medical education. The consultancies will provide you the accurate information in this issue. Thus you can plan for everything in advance to stay comfortable in Russia. Learning Russian language: It is not mandatory that you need to learn the Russian language. English is also one of the modes of education in Russia as students from different parts of the world come here to study. However, there is some Russian language speaking classes which you can attend to stay more comfortable in Russia and to understand your subject more. How about transfer to better medical college? You can also have a shift for the better medical college in Russia, but you need to qualify for the transfer. You will be granted for the transfer only if you qualify the transfer. The consultancies will assist you in this issue.

Financial assistance: Many lending institutes and banks are offering the financial assistance to the students who are looking for the abroad education. The Consultancies will provide you all the details of the various sources from which you can take the financial assistance. They will also help you in attaining the financial assistance too. Visa: Visa is mandatory for those who are looking to pursue education abroad. You need to submit the visa along with the admission form in order to get an admission in any of the colleges in Russia. The entire process of applying for the Visa is really easy and you can easily attain it in a hassle-free manner by taking the assistance of the consultancies. Visit the website for more information.